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Before the collapse of the USSR, all biological weapons programs were grouped under the single organization of Biopreparat since 1973. Its 30,000 employees helped to both develop research and to produce pathogenic weapons and antidotals for the defense of the Soviet Union. The biopreparat complex suffered with the collapse of the USSR. Its current presence is greatly reduced, however it is likely that Biopreparat and successor entities continued bioweapons research and development at least through the mid to late 1990's.

Biopreparat was the number one producer of Anthrax for the USSR. Additionally, Biopreparat was a leader in the development of new bioweapons technologies.

Pathogens that were successfully weaponized by the organization included (in order of completion):

Annual production capacities for many of the above listed pathogens were in the tens of tons, typically with redundant production facilities located throughout the Soviet Union. The anthrax production facility in Yekaterinburg (formerly Sverdlovsk) in 1979 has been prominently featured and studied.

Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov (a.k.a. the americanized Ken Alibek), was the First Deputy Director of Biopreparat from 1988 to 1992, when he defected to the United States. Dr. Alibekov wrote the book Biohazard detailing his extensive inside knowledge of the structure, goals, operations and achievements of Biopreparat. Dr. Alibekov was also featured in the October 13, 1998 episode of Frontline.

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