is a mixture of two or more components which has a constant boiling point
at a particular composition. A consequence of this constant boiling point is that one cannot entirely separate the components by distillation
(though of course, in the case of the ethanol-water azeotrope, you can get close to a pure product).
An azeotrope is said to be positive if the constant boiling point is at a temperature maximum, and negative when the boiling point is at a temperature minimum.
Examples of azeotropes :
- nitric acid (68.4%) / water, boils at 122°C
- perchloric acid (28.4%) / water, boils at 203°C (negative azeotrope)
- fluorhydric acid (35.6%) / water, boils at 111.35°C (negative azeotrope)
- ethanol (95%) / water, (boils at x %)
- sulphuric acid (98.3%) /water, boils at 330°C