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Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It is caused by the chronic inhalation of asbestos fibers. People at risk are with occupational exposure to the mining, manufacturing, handling or removal of asbestos.

There is an increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with asbestosis. The risk is related to the total dose of asbestos received and the duration of asbestos exposure. Exposure to the crocidolite form of asbestos is the form most associated with mesothelioma among the four forms of asbestos. Mesothelioma usually occurs between 20-40 years after exposure to asbestos and has a very poor prognosis with most patients dying within 2-4 years of diagnosis.

Inhalation of fibers of asbestos lead to development of alveolar and interstitial fibrosis of lung tissue. This leads to reduced lung capacity and compliance, leading to reduced gas transfer.

The primary symptom of asbestosis would be a slow, insidious onset of shortness of breath on exertion. In severe, advanced cases, this may lead to respiratory failure. Cough is not usually a typical symptom unless the patient has concomitant other respiratory tract diseases.

Diagnosis of asbestosis is largely dependent on a good and accurate clinical history taking. Occupational exposure to asbestosis is critical to the diagnosis. Histopathological diagnosis is usually not necessary for patient management but can be used to confirm the diagnosis in post-mortem.

Prevention of asbestosis involves identifying risk of exposure to asbestos and protection from dusts and inhaled substances at work.