Arundel Castle in West Sussex is one of the most impressive and complete castles remaining in Britain. The original fortification was begun during the reign of Edward the Confessor and completed by Robert de Montgomery, who was the first to hold the earldom, under William I of England. In 1102, King Henry I took possession of the castle and gave it to William d'Albini, whose descendant, the present Duke of Norfolk, still owns it. In 1139, the castle was a refuge for the Empress Maud during the Anarchy. King Henry II of England made substantial improvements to the castle, but it was almost destroyed during the English Civil War. It was subsequently restored, and much of the present structure dates from the 18th and 19th centuries.