An example of the first sort of archaeoastronomy is the study of the extensive records of ancient China for references to "guest stars". "Guest stars," or star-like objects which appeared in the night sky, were of great interest to the observers of ancient China and were often dutifully recorded. These events have been associated with many transitory phenomena, such as comets and, particularly, supernovae.
An example of the second sort of archeoastronomy is the study of solar, lunar, and stellar alignments of historical monuments. Many claims have been made that the megalithic monument, Stonehenge, represents an "ancient observatory," although the extent of its use in that regard is in dispute. Certainly Stonehenge - and many other ancient monuments - is aligned with particular significance to the solstice and equinox points. Similar claims have been made that the Great Pyramids of Egypt are aligned with the stars in the belt of Orion, in reflection of the significance invested in that constellation by the ancient Egyptians.