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Appalachia is a rural region in and around the Appalachian Mountains in the Eastern U.S., extending through parts of Tennessee, Kentucky, the Carolinas, western Virginia, and West Virginia, through central Pennsylvania to southwestern New York. At one time it was characterized by a unique culture considered backwards by many city folk; elements of this culture yet remain. The Ozark mountain area was also isolated from mainstream US culture and has a similar culture.

The Foxfire books were an effort to document the Appalachian culture. Al Capp caricatured Appalachia/Ozark culture with hillbilly Li'l Abner in his cartoon strip Dogpatch. The Dukes of Hazzard and The Beverly Hillbillies were caricature television programs. The movies, Coal Miner's Daughter and The Incredible Journey of Doctor Meg Laurel give a more sensitive and accurate portrayal of life in Appalachia. The Waltons, a long running family TV serial, was sited in western Virginia.

Bluegrass music is a cultural contribution of the region to the world.