Called "Antium" in ancient times, it was the capital of the Volsci people until it was conquered by the Romans in the year 468 BC. After an unsuccessful revolt, it was colonized in 338 BC, becoming the preferred maritime residence of the patrician Romans who built a number of magnificent seaside villas . Both Emperor Caligula and Nero were born in Anzio, the ruins of the latter's villa can still be seen today.
Anzio is also notable as the site of an Allied forces landing (Operation Shingle) and ensuing four-month battle (Anzio Campaign) during World War II. The Commonwealth Anzio War Cemetery and Beach Head War Cemetery are located here.