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Anshan (鞍山, lit. 'saddle mountain') is a city in China in Liaoning province close to Shenyang. It has a population of approximately 2.5 million. It is famous for its iron and steel complex, which is the largest in China.

Anshan was also a small kingdom in what is now Iran during the 1st millennium BC, ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty. It embarked on a period of conquest in the 6th century BC, resulting in the formation of the Persian empire.