Almost the first act of his reign was the suppression of a rebellion under Talha and Zobair (two eminent companions of Muhammad), who were instigated by Aisha, Muhammad's widow, a bitter enemy of Ali, and one of the chief hindrances to his advancement to the caliphate. The rebel army was defeated at the Battle of Basra also known as the Battle of the Camel, the two generals being killed, and Ayisha taken prisoner, although she was released and given a pension.
Ali soon afterwards made Kufa his capital. His next care was to get rid of the opposition of Muawiyah, the governor of Syria, who had established himself at the head of a renegade army. A prolonged battle took place in July 657 in the plain of Siffin (Suffein), near the Euphrates; the fighting was at first, in favour of Ali, when suddenly a number of the enemy, fixing copies of the Quran to the points of their spears, exclaimed that "the matter ought to be settled by reference to this book, which forbids Moslems to shed each other's blood." The superstitious soldiers of Ali refused to fight any longer, and demanded that the issue be referred to arbitration. Abu Musa was appointed umpire on the part of Ali, and `Amr-ibn-al-As, a veteran diplomatist, on the part of Muawiyah. It is said that `Amr persuaded Abu Musa that it would be for the advantage of Islam that neither candidate should reign, and asked him to give his decision first. Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Muawiya, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, and announced further that he invested Moawiya with the caliphate. This treacherous decision greatly injured the cause of Ali, which was still further weakened by the loss of Egypt.
It chanced, however--according to a legend, the details of which are quite uncertain--that three of the sect of the Kharijites had made an agreement to assassinate Ali, Muawiyah and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful. The only victim of this plot was Ali, who died at Kufa in 661, of the wound inflicted by a poisoned weapon. A splendid mosque called Meshed Ali was afterwards erected near the city, the place of his burial. He had eight wives after Fatima's death, and in all, it is said, thirty-three children, one of whom, Hasan, a son of Fatima, is said by the Sunni tradition to have stepped aside to prevent furhter bloodshed among Muslims. Muawiyah, who founded the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs thus became the caliph. Ali's descendants by Fatima are known as the Fatimids.
The question of Ali's right to succeed to the caliphate is an article of faith which divided the Muslim world into two great sects, the Sunni and the Shia. The Sunnis believe that the prophet chose Abu Bakr to be the first caliph, while the Shia believe that it was Ali's right to suceed the prophet since he was his closest kinsman. Whatever the case, Ali did not challenge Abu Bakr or any of the later caliphs, rather he served as an advisor to them.
Ali is greatly respected by all Muslims, both Sunni and Shia. The Shia, venerate him especially as second only to the prophet, call him the "Lion of God" (Sher-i-Khuda), and celebrate the anniversary of his martyrdom. Ali is described as a bold, noble and generous man, "the last and worthiest of the primitive Moslems, who imbibed his religious enthusiasm from companionship with the prophet himself, and who followed to the last the simplicity of his example." (See further Caliphate.)
In the eyes of the later Muslems he was remarkable for learning and wisdom, and there are extant collections of proverbs and verses which bear his name: the Sentences of Ali.
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