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Aemilius (fem. Aemilia) was the nomen of the gens Aemilia, one of the five most important patrician families (gentes maiores) of ancient Rome.

The Aemilii were a very old clan; they were supposed to have descended from Mamercus, a son of Pythagoras who was surnamed "Aemylos" or "Aimilios" because of his refinement and speaking ability. Another version quoted by Plutarch said that Mamercus was a son of King Numa Pompilius, Numa being an admirer of Pythagoras and so naming a son after Pythagoras' son. (However, the similarity of the name "Aemilius" and the Greek word aimilios is most likely just a coincidence.)

The branches of the Aemilii were Barbula, Buca, Lepidus, Mamercus, Papus, Paullus, Regilus and Scaurus. Of these, the Aemilii Lepidi had the most notable Romans, especially at the end of the Republic.

The family lent its name to the road Via Aemilia, and the Basilica Aemilia in Rome.