He was born in Halberstadt. His organ building business was based in Hausneindorf and he built instruments at the Jakobikirche in Magdeburg (1853-58), the Gewandhaus in Leipzig (1860; home of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra) and Magdeburg Cathedral (1861).
From 1860, Adolf's business was run in partnership with his son Emil, who continued to run the business until his death in 1885 when Ernst Röver took over. He outlived another son, the composer Julius Reubke, and another, Otto, also became a composer.
Adolf Reubke died in Hausneindorf.