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A-star search algorithm

The A* search algorithm (pronounced "Ay-star") is a tree search algorithm that finds a path from a given initial node to a given goal node (or one passing a given goal test). It employs a "heuristic estimate" which ranks each node by an estimate of the best route that goes through that node. It visits the nodes in order of this heuristic estimate. The A* algorithm is therefore an example of best-first search.


A* begins at a selected node. Applied to this node are the "cost" of entering this node (usually zero for the initial node). A* then estimates the distance to the goal node from the current node. This estimate and the cost added together are the heuristic which is assigned to the path leading to this node. The node is then added to a priority queue, often called "open".

The algorithm then removes the next node from the priority queue (because of the way a priority queue works, the node removed will have the lowest heuristic). If the queue is empty, there is no path from the initial node to the goal node and the algorithm stops. If the node is the goal node, A* constructs and outputs the successful path and stops.

If the node is not the goal node, new nodes are created for all admissible adjoining nodes; the exact way of doing this depends on the problem at hand. For each successive node, A* calculates the "cost" of entering the node and saves it with the node. This cost is calculated from the cumulative sum of costs stored with its ancestors, plus the cost of the operation which reached this new node.

The algorithm also maintains a 'closed' list of nodes whose adjoining nodes have been checked. If a newly generated node is already in this list with an equal or lower cost, no further processing is done on that node or with the path associated with it. If a node in the closed list matches the new one, but has been stored with a higher cost, it is removed from the closed list, and processing continues on the new node.

Next, an estimate of the new node's distance to the goal is added to the cost to form the heuristic for that node. This is then added to the 'open' priority queue, unless an identical node is found there.

Once the above three steps have been repeated for each new adjoining node, the original node taken from the priority queue is added to the 'closed' list. The next node is then popped from the priority queue and the process is repeated.

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