Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - **560s BC** - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC

- May, 563 BC - Birth of Siddhartha Gautama, later known as Gautama Buddha in Lumbini, India.
- 561 BC - Death of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (estimated date).
- 560 BC - Birth of Nabu-rimanni in Babylonia, Chaldean astronomer and mathematician (+ 480 BC) (estimated date).