1956 in science,
other events of 1957,
1958 in science,
list of years in science.
October 4 - Launch of Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite
Structure of myoglobin determined by x-ray crystallography
Prim's algorithm developed
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station established
BCS theory of superconductivity developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer
February 8 - John von Neumann, mathematician
February 18 - Henry Norris Russell, astronamer
March 11 - Alexander Fleming (b. 1881), scientist.