See also: 1778 in science, other events of 1779, 1780 in science and the list of years in science.
May 5 - The spiral galaxy M61 was discovered in the constellation Virgo by Barnabus Oriani.
The Iron Bridge was completed across the Severn river in Shropshire; the first all cast-iron bridge ever constructed.
Bry Higgins issued a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) for use as an exterior plaster.
The spinning mule was invented by Samuel Crompton.
August 7 - Jöns Jacob Berzelius, chemist
February 14 - James Cook, explorer